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 Space Exploration and exploitation

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كاتب الموضوعرسالة
The Master

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تاريخ التسجيل : 28/10/2010
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مُساهمةموضوع: Space Exploration and exploitation   الجمعة أكتوبر 29, 2010 7:04 am

[justify]Space:
Exploration and exploitation
in a modern society
Report of a seminar, held on 20 May 2009, that highlighted
how space exploration is leading to major scientific
discoveries, is essential to the UK economy and how it helps
to improve our everyday lives.
Space: Exploration and exploitation in a modern society
Space : Exploration and exploitation in a modern society August 2009 1
The Institute of Physics, the Royal Society of Chemistry and the Parliamentary Space Committee
held a joint seminar at the House of Commons on 20 May 2009. The seminar highlighted how space
exploration is leading to major scientific discoveries, is essential to the UK economy and how it helps
to improve our everyday lives while playing a crucial role in managing global challenges such as
climate change.
Curiosity about the Earth, the planets and stars has been the driving force behind human progress
since prehistoric times. Today, the exploration of the universe beyond the confines of our home
planet remains one of the most inspiring, exciting and fruitful areas of scientific research. Many
studies require sending spacecraft into space, mostly unmanned, although humans first reached the
Moon 40 years ago and may go to Mars in the future. One of the main advantages of investigating
the universe from space is that the details of far-off galaxies, as well as events marking the birth,
evolution and death of stars, can be seen unhampered by the blurring effects of the atmosphere, and
at wavelengths of light not easily accessible from the ground. Increasingly, scientists and engineers
are developing advanced space probes, with robotic components that can operate autonomously, to
explore the extraordinarily diverse planets and moons of our solar system.
As well as gazing at the cosmos, many space missions are designed to look back at the Earth, to study
its rich complexity and the effects of humans on the terrestrial environment. Satellite services is one
of the fastest-growing areas of advanced technology. It is now hard to imagine modern life without
satellite communications – for entertainment, information, security and environmental monitoring.
Basic science, Earth observation and the application of technology in everyday life continue to benefit
hugely from space exploration. As governments and space agencies plan ever more technically
challenging missions to survey the universe, going back to its birth, and even to search for signs of life
on planets around other stars, the resulting technologies developed will find use on Earth, in sectors as
diverse as health and transport. One day we may even be able to utilise the natural resources, such as
water and fuels, that are found on other solar-system bodies, as our own supplies dwindle.
Mr Ian Taylor MP, co-chairman of the Parliamentary Space Committee and a former minister for
science and technology, chaired the seminar. He emphasised that space projects inspire everyone
and draw young people into studying science. He pointed out that satellite services are playing an
increasingly important part in monitoring land use, transport services and the impact of environmental
disasters. Prof. David Southwood, director of science and robotic exploration at the European Space
Agency (ESA), explained how current and future space-science missions will continue to transform our
understanding of basic physics and the universe, as well as the Earth itself. Mr David Williams, chief
executive of the satellite-communications company Avanti Communications, described how space
science and technology are generating flourishing and expanding space-based industries and services
in the UK. Dr Maggie Aderin-Pocock, optical instrumentation group leader of the European aerospace
company Astrium and STFC-funded fellow of University College London, gave examples of how recent
space missions are impacting on our lives and expanding our perception of our place in the universe.
The UK has a major space programme, which it pursues through membership of ESA and some bilateral
collaborations outside Europe. Eighteen European countries participate in ESA, and the number is
likely to grow with increasing interest from eastern Europe. ESA’s remit covers the exploration of
the universe, Earth observation, and the development of underpinning technology for commercial
satellite operations and other applications. Although ESA’s budget is smaller than that of NASA, its
programmes are highly productive, both in terms of the scientific discoveries and economic benefits
derived from novel technologies developed to carry them out.
Introduction
Space: Exploration and exploitation in a modern society
Space : Exploration and exploitation in a modern society August 2009 2
Prof. Southwood said that looking out into
space at the Sun and stars and measuring their
progression has been a key part of human
progress for thousands of years. He described
how reaching out into space during the past
50 years has expanded our knowledge of the
universe in an extraordinary way. Space missions
enabled galaxies, stars and interstellar space to
be observed at wavelengths of electromagnetic
radiation not possible from the ground,
providing new insights into astrophysical
processes. For example, observations of the sky
around the familiar constellation of Orion at
infrared wavelengths (which are absorbed by
atmospheric water) reveal vast clouds of cold,
glowing dust, which is condensing into new
stars and planetary systems. Our own solar
system is constructed from the same building
blocks. “We are made of the same stardust,” said
Prof. Southwood.
ESA has launched a gamut of space-science
missions that make observations at wavelengths
covering most of the electromagnetic spectrum,
from gamma rays to microwaves. X-ray astronomy
provides details of the most violent events in
the universe, such as those associated with black
holes, while ESA’s most recent missions – Herschel
and Planck, which were launched together in
May 2009 – are surveying the universe at cool
infrared and microwave wavelengths. Herschel
boasts the biggest telescope ever launched. It is
cryogenically cooled and holds the record for the
coldest object in space, at 0.05؛ above absolute
zero. Designed to detect radiation from cold,
distant parts of the universe, Herschel can peer
at young galaxies that formed only a billion years
after the Big Bang. The Planck mission looks back
even further, at the pervasive longer microwave
radiation left over from the decoupling of matter
and light 380 000 years after the Big Bang. The
microwave background carries imprints of the
primordial quantum events that set in motion the
formation of the first galactic structures. Both
missions are named after scientists who made
fundamental discoveries that affect our lives.
Sir William Herschel, working in Bath, was the
first scientist to identify infrared radiation, while
the German physicist Max Planck showed that
radiation came in packets of energy called quanta.
Both discoveries are vital to the way that we live
modern life.
Prof. Southwood explained that ESA has an
extremely successful programme of solar-system
exploration. It includes missions to study the Sun,
Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, as well
as to land on a comet. The missions continue to
produce fascinating and unexpected data that
provide insights into the Earth’s own geology
and meteorology, and provide clues on how life
evolved. ESA plans to send a mission to Mercury
in 2013. “It has been a wonderful decade of
discovery for ESA,” said Prof. Southwood.
Many of ESA’s missions are carried out in
partnership with NASA. The most celebrated
is the Hubble Space Telescope, which has been
sending back spectacular images of the universe
for nearly 20 years. Global collaboration will
increasingly be needed for the most ambitious
projects. “We are trying to forge a joint
European/US programme for the exploration of
the Red Planet [Mars],” said Prof. Southwood.
ESA and NASA recently proposed the creation of
the Mars Exploration Joint Initiative (MEJI), which
will provide a framework for the two agencies
to define and implement their scientific and
technological programmes. The UK plans to play
an active role in such missions. Prof. Southwood
said that the UK’s bid to land a robotic explorer
Beagle 2 on Mars in 2003 had changed British
people’s perceptions of space, and had reinforced
the UK’s capabilities in robotic exploration. As a
consequence, a new ESA facility will be set up on
the Harwell Science and Innovation Campus in
Oxfordshire, to concentrate on space robotics and
climate-change science.
Space discovery and exploration
The launch of the
Planck and Herschel
missions. Courtesy:
European Space
Agency/D Ducros/
Science Photo Library
Space: Exploration and exploitation in a modern society
Space : Exploration and exploitation in a modern 3 society August 2009
Avanti
Communications’
share-price
performance
illustrating how
growth of the UK
space industry
consistently
outstrips broader
economic growth.
Courtesy: Avanti
Communications
Space-science discoveries and technology
development will continue to go hand in hand.
This was the message from Mr Williams. His
company Avanti Communications was founded on
basic research and applied science, he said. It is the
first European company to launch a satellite-based
super-fast broadband service serving customers
in rural areas. The underpinning technology
stems from ESA’s Advanced Research in
Telecommunications Systems (ARTES) programme,
which enables European industry to explore
new ideas for satellite-communications products
and services. The new broadband service will
contribute towards the implementation of the
government’s “Digital Britain” policy to secure
the UK’s position as one of the world’s leading
digital-knowledge economies.
Mr Williams pointed out that the UK holds a
dominant position in the space industry because
it has built up a critical mass of knowledge
and human resources over a long period that
makes it difficult for others to compete. “The
UK has a very lean and focused attitude towards
space, concentrating on cutting-edge payloads,
instrumentation and small platforms. The result
is that we have generated a seven-fold return on
investment from the ARTES budget,” he said.
Some of the world’s most successful space
companies are based in the UK, supporting
70 000 jobs and a highly skilled workforce. As well
as Avanti Communications, they include: Europe’s
leading space company Astrium; Infoterra,
which is a leader in Earth-observation services;
Inmarsat, which is the world’s most profitable
telecommunications company; Paradigm, which
provides military satellite-communications
services; and Surrey Satellite Telecommunications,
which pioneered low-cost satellites. Downstream
industries such as Sky TV have also flourished.
“We should be very proud of our industry,” said
Mr Williams.
According to the leading economic forecasting
consultancy, Oxford Economics, the global space
industry is set to grow by 15% a year. However,
Mr Williams warned that the UK must maintain
its momentum of developing and exploiting
cutting-edge space technologies in the face of
growing competition from emerging economies
such as China and India. “We need to be
continually investing in applied space research
and converting it into commercial services. This
requires that the science and business sectors
work in harmony,” he explained.
Economic impact of funding space research
260
Jun
240
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan
2009
Feb
2008
Mar Apr May
Avanti Communications Group Plc
UK FTSE All-Share (Rebased)
FTSE AIM All-Share Index (Rebased)
Space: Exploration and exploitation in a modern society
S pac e : E x p lor at ion a n d e x p loi tat ion i n a mod e r n soc i e t y Au gus t 2 0 0 9 4
As well as stimulating economic growth,
space-based systems have made an enormous
impact on how we deal with the environment.
Dr Aderin-Pocock explained how Earth
observations from space can follow weather
patterns. They can provide an understanding
of hurricane formation, for example, so that
early-warning systems can be implemented.
Images from space can show the best routes for
access into areas cut off by flooding and other
environmental disasters.
A growing use of space technology is in studying
the effects of climate change. Dr Aderin-Pocock
has been working on the design of ESA’s
Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM-Aeolus),
which aims to measure wind-speed profiles. The
data obtained will improve the quality of weather
forecasts, and advance our understanding of
atmospheric dynamics and climate processes.
“Wind speed is one of the biggest unknowns in
understanding what influences climate,” said
Dr Aderin-Pocock. The main instrument is a laser
that emits pulses of ultraviolet light, which are
then back-scattered from atmospheric particles
and detected.
Studying the climates of our planetary neighbours
also helps us to better understand the Earth’s
climate, explained Dr Aderin-Pocock. ESA’s Venus
Express mission, launched in 2005, uncovered
our sister planet’s extraordinary atmospheric
system, revealing, for example, a bizarre giant
double-hurricane system at the South Pole. Venus
is extremely hot and suffers from a runaway
greenhouse effect, so provides an extreme model
for studies of global warming. Mars, which is
much colder than the Earth, is an example of what
happens when a planet loses its atmosphere. ESA’s
Mars Express spacecraft is mapping the planet,
and observations indicate that water was once
abundant on the Martian surface. Mars could
once have harboured life and may do so again if
humans decide to colonise it.
Dr Aderin-Pocock said that there were many
practical benefits from planetary exploration.
The UK Beagle 2 lander, which was carried by
the Mars Express spacecraft, had to incorporate
instrumentation that was as compact as possible.
One of the main instruments was a miniature
mass spectrometer, which is now being developed
as part of a portable system for diagnosing
tuberculosis in Africa. Similarly, autonomous
navigation systems being designed for future
Mars expeditions (ExoMars to explore and sample
the Martian surface and subsurface for past and
current signs of life, and Mars Sample Return,
which aims to bring Martian samples back to
Earth) will find equally significant applications in
terrestrial environments.
Another potentially major impact (literally) on
human existence is the threat of near-Earth
objects (NEOs) – orbiting comets or meteorites
that could collide with the Earth. ESA is working
on a mission concept called Don Quijote, which
Space in our lives
Top: the Beagle 2
lander leaving the
Mars express orbiter.
Courtesy: European
Space Agency 2001.
Illustration by Media
Lab. Left: the ExoMars
Rover – phase B1
concept. Courtesy:
European Space
Agency
Space: Exploration and exploitation in a modern society
S pac e : Ex p lo r at i o n a n d e x p lo i tat i o n in a mo d e r n 5 soc i e t y Au gus t 2 0 0 9
A wide-field view
of the constellation
of Indus. Courtesy:
A Fujii
involves smashing into a targeted near-Earth
asteroid and measuring the deflection resulting
from the impact. The aim is to see whether the
NEO can be pushed into a new, safe orbit.
A significant benefit of space exploration is its
ability to excite young people, who may then go
on to pursue a career in science and technology
in general – and perhaps in the space industry
in particular, which is suffering from a shortage
of suitably qualified scientists and engineers.
Dr Aderin-Pocock explained that she had wanted
to be a rocket scientist since she was a child
and was keen to stimulate interest in others.
In addition to working for Astrium, she has a
company, Science Innovation Ltd, which presents
space science and exploration to schools. The
extraordinary images of billions of distant galaxies
sent back to Earth by the Hubble Space Telescope,
and the possibility of discovering Earth-like
planets in other solar systems via future space
missions provide a real inspiration.
Space: Exploration and exploitation in a modern society
S pac e : E x p lor at ion a n d e x p loi tat ion i n a mod e r n soc i e t y Au gus t 2 0 0 9 6
Further information
1. Beagle mission, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
2. The European Space Agency, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
3. Herschel, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
4. Planck, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
5. The Hubble Space Telescope, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
6. The ESA ARTES project, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
7. Avanti Communications, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
8. Digital Britain – Final Report, June 2009, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
9. Astrium, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
10. The Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM-Aeolus), [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
11. Venus Express, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
12. Mars Express, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
13. ExoMars and Mars Sample Return missions, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
14. Don Quijote mission, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
15. Science Innovation Ltd, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
Space: Exploration and exploitation in a modern society
S pac e : Ex p lo r at i o n a n d e x p lo i tat i o n in a mo d e r n 7 soc i e t y Au gus t 2 0 0 9
About the societies
The Institute of Physics (IOP) is a scientific charity devoted to increasing the practice, understanding
and application of physics. It has a worldwide membership of more than 36 000 and is a leading
communicator of physics-related science to all audiences, from specialists through to government and
the general public. Its publishing company, IOP Publishing, is a world-leader in scientific publishing and
the electronic dissemination of physics.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) has been the leading society and professional body for chemical
scientists since 1841 and is committed to ensuring that an enthusiastic, innovative and thriving
scientific community is in place to face the future. The RSC has a global membership of more than
46 000 and is actively involved in the spheres of education, qualifications and professional conduct. It
runs conferences and meetings for chemical scientists, industrialists and policy makers at both national
and local level. It is a major publisher of scientific books and journals, the majority of which are held
in the Library and Information Centre. In all of its work, the RSC is objective and impartial, and it is
recognised throughout the world as an authoritative voice of chemistry and chemists.
The Parliamentary Space Committee (PSC) exists to raise awareness in Parliament of the benefits to the
UK of its world-class space industry. Recent PSC events have covered themes as varied as Africa, space
finance, the Olympics, astronauts, and promoting women in science, engineering and technology.
The PSC is one of the oldest and most established all-party groups in Parliament with more than
100 members in both houses.[img][/img][img][/img] cheers [justify][/justify[/justify
]]
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
Mona Abousale7

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عدد المساهمات : 6
تاريخ التسجيل : 14/10/2010
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Space Exploration and exploitation   الجمعة أكتوبر 29, 2010 8:31 am

good but shoud be re-edited Arrow
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
أ/أحمد البسيونى
Admin
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عدد المساهمات : 347
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/02/2010
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الموقع : http://sahragt.ahlamontada.com

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Space Exploration and exploitation   الإثنين مارس 07, 2011 8:59 pm

بارك الله فيك

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معلم أول أ اللغة الانجليزية بمدرسة صهرجت الصغرى الثانوية المشتركة - أجا - الدقهلية
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Space Exploration and exploitation
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