مدرسة صهرجت الصغرى الثانوية

مدرسة صهرجت الصغرى الثانوية

مدرسة صهرجت الصغرى الثانوية
 
الرئيسيةالتسجيل

شاطر | 
 

 بحث فى اللغة الإنجليزية عن:Teaching method

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
أ/أحمد البسيونى
Admin
avatar

عدد المساهمات : 347
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/02/2010
العمر : 51
الموقع : http://sahragt.ahlamontada.com

مُساهمةموضوع: بحث فى اللغة الإنجليزية عن:Teaching method   الخميس أكتوبر 21, 2010 4:16 am

بحث فى اللغة الإنجليزية عن:






Teaching method
&
Classroom Management
إعداد الأستاذ/ أحمد عبد الجواد عطية البسيونى

بمدرسة صهرجت الصغرى الثانوية

Teaching methods are best articulated by answering the questions, "What is the purpose of education?" and "What are the best ways of achieving these purposes?". For much of prehistory, educational methods were largely informal, and consisted of children imitating or modelling their behaviour on that of their elders, learning through observation and play. In this sense, the children are the students, and the elder is the teacher; a teacher creates the course materials to be taught and then enforces it. Pedagogy is a different way by which a teacher can teach. It is the art or science of being a teacher, generally referring to strategies of instruction or style of instruction. Resources that help teachers teach better are typically a lesson plan, or practical skill involving learning and thinking skills. A curriculum is often set by the Government with precise standards. These standards can change frequently, depending on what the Government states.
Teaching Grammar


Grammar is central to the teaching and learning of languages. It is also one of the more difficult aspects of language to teach well.
Many people, including language teachers, hear the word "grammar" and think of a fixed set of word forms and rules of usage. They associate "good" grammar with the prestige forms of the language, such as those used in writing and in formal oral presentations, and "bad" or "no" grammar with the language used in everyday conversation or used by speakers of nonprestige forms.
Language teachers who adopt this definition focus on grammar as a set of forms and rules. They teach grammar by explaining the forms and rules and then drilling students on them. This results in bored, disaffected students who can produce correct forms on exercises and tests, but consistently make errors when they try to use the language in context.
Other language teachers, influenced by recent theoretical work on the difference between language learning and language acquisition, tend not to teach grammar at all. Believing that children acquire their first language without overt grammar instruction, they expect students to learn their second language the same way. They assume that students will absorb grammar rules as they hear, read, and use the language in communication activities. This approach does not allow students to use one of the major tools they have as learners: their active understanding of what grammar is and how it works in the language they already know.
The communicative competence model balances these extremes. The model recognizes that overt grammar instruction helps students acquire the language more efficiently, but it incorporates grammar teaching and learning into the larger context of teaching students to


عدل سابقا من قبل أ/أحمد البسيونى في الخميس أكتوبر 21, 2010 4:21 am عدل 1 مرات
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
أ/أحمد البسيونى
Admin
avatar

عدد المساهمات : 347
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/02/2010
العمر : 51
الموقع : http://sahragt.ahlamontada.com

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث فى اللغة الإنجليزية عن:Teaching method   الخميس أكتوبر 21, 2010 4:17 am

use the language. Instructors using this model teach students the grammar they need to know to accomplish defined communication tasks.
Why teach grammar?


An opinion


Regardless of which approach or what methods are used, most foreign language students will find themselves severely handicapped by an institutional structure that works counter to their best interests. Most teachers realize that their students will not become truly proficient solely because of their teaching prowess. Rather, nearly all students who reach a high level of proficiency will do so as the result of personal initiative that includes a committment to invest far more time than is currently expected in the typical high school or university setting.
Imagine if a student were to attend a 5-minute class, taught by a non-native speaker, once a week, for the period of one month. What level of proficiency would you expect this student to attain? Contrast the above example with the student who travels to the mother country, enters an intensive foreign language program, lives with a host family, makes friends who speak only the target language, and actively seeks out experiences to become immersed in both the language and the culture.
How to Teach Reading Strategies
What’s the secret to teaching reading strategies?


The key to teaching reading strategies is to teach it without bringing it to the forefront of the lesson. It is recommended to teach the strategies (without naming them) only after the students accomplish some task based on the reading strategy. Students of Junior High school age are still too young to understand and remember the names of the strategies and it is pointless in lecturing and naming reading strategies. Once they have processed information, the teacher can mention the reading strategy in a by-the-way manner in terms of what they used and how it may help them in the future.
If a teacher gets a positive reaction from the students, s/he can use this opportunity and expand on it. Even if the teaching and/or learning experience was not positive, it is a good idea to learn from it and understand what went wrong and what could have motivated them more. The next time, the teacher can remind the students of having used the strategies when they worked on a particular text and how using those strategies helped them understand the text better.
Using the Visual Aid Method to Teach Reading StrategiesA helpful way to teach and reinforce reading strategies is through the use of graphic organizers. Graphic organizers appeal to a variety of multiple intelligences and it is important for students see the connection between the visual element and the reading
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
أ/أحمد البسيونى
Admin
avatar

عدد المساهمات : 347
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/02/2010
العمر : 51
الموقع : http://sahragt.ahlamontada.com

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث فى اللغة الإنجليزية عن:Teaching method   الخميس أكتوبر 21, 2010 4:17 am

task. Again, the a-z reading site is incredibly helpful and provides loads of opportunities to recycle reading strategies in a wonderfully creative way.
Art is magic and so is teaching; teaching involves the sacred art form of sharing your knowledge with other people and making them understands the concept which they teach. Teaching is also a science form; this is because teaching involves the practice of the theory and the principles of the knowledge just like that of science. Teaching is not everybody's talent; it involves a good knowledge in the subject that you are going to teach the students. Teaching also involves a very good communication skill, you will need to have the communication skill to interact with the students and make them understand what you are going to teach them. Making the students understand what you wish to say is in deed a very tedious job which involves patience. In addition to good knowledge and a good communication skill, one also have to have good patience in their character since one has to make sure that each and every student in the group understood what you taught with out even a trace of uncertainty. One has to be really very clear both in the mind as well as their speech about what they are going to teach, the clarity of the teacher will automatically lead to the clarity of the students. But teachers are in deed hard to find, including the language teachers since people these days are more attracted to the corporate jobs.
Comprehension is the art of answering questions about a piece of literary work such as passage that you have just read. It involves the question about the piece of passage you read including the contents of the piece. The questions also involve a more figurative questions like the figure of speech used and the in depth meaning of a particular sentence, sometimes the question also involves the naming of a suitable title for the literary piece which is generally a passage, in case they have not provided with a title previously. There are various methods of teaching this technique of teaching comprehension to the students. First of all you will have you call upon the students before starting a new book and ask them for their opinion about the book like ask them what they assume the book will be about. Also have this habit of asking questions just as you read the passage in order to make the students alert. The questions can be like 'what did she say?' after a particular dialog has been read. After finishing reading the comprehension test if the children are able to recall that has been read out to them, ask them questions regarding the passage to check their memory before actually going to the question to be answered. Think of the way to engage the children to the story as you are reading it; also encourage the children to read a lot of stories and books to improve their language and also the reading skills.
Teach Reading ComprehensionArt is magic and so is teaching; teaching involves the sacred art form of sharing your knowledge with other people and making them understands the concept which they teach. Teaching is also a science form; this is because teaching involves the practice of the theory and the principles of the knowledge just like that of science. Teaching is not everybody's talent; it involves a good knowledge in the subject that you are going to teach the students. Teaching also involves a very good communication skill, you will need to have the communication skill to interact with the students and make them understand what you are going to teach them. Making the students understand what you
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
أ/أحمد البسيونى
Admin
avatar

عدد المساهمات : 347
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/02/2010
العمر : 51
الموقع : http://sahragt.ahlamontada.com

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث فى اللغة الإنجليزية عن:Teaching method   الخميس أكتوبر 21, 2010 4:18 am

wish to say is in deed a very tedious job which involves patience. In addition to good knowledge and a good communication skill, one also have to have good patience in their character since one has to make sure that each and every student in the group understood what you taught with out even a trace of uncertainty. One has to be really very clear both in the mind as well as their speech about what they are going to teach, the clarity of the teacher will automatically lead to the clarity of the students. But teachers are in deed hard to find, including the language teachers since people these days are more attracted to the corporate jobs.
Comprehension is the art of answering questions about a piece of literary work such as passage that you have just read. It involves the question about the piece of passage you read including the contents of the piece. The questions also involve a more figurative questions like the figure of speech used and the in depth meaning of a particular sentence, sometimes the question also involves the naming of a suitable title for the literary piece which is generally a passage, in case they have not provided with a title previously. There are various methods of teaching this technique of teaching comprehension to the students. First of all you will have you call upon the students before starting a new book and ask them for their opinion about the book like ask them what they assume the book will be about. Also have this habit of asking questions just as you read the passage in order to make the students alert. The questions can be like 'what did she say?' after a particular dialog has been read. After finishing reading the comprehension test if the children are able to recall that has been read out to them, ask them questions regarding the passage to check their memory before actually going to the question to be answered. Think of the way to engage the children to the story as you are reading it; also encourage the children to read a lot of stories and books to improve their language and also the reading skills.
How to Teach Vocabulary

How to Teach Vocabulary is a practical guide for teachers who wish to develop their skills and learn about recent developments in this important area. The book includes:

· a description of how words are learned

· a guide to useful sources of vocabulary for classroom use, including coursebooks, corpora and dictionaries

· approaches to testing presenting and consolidating vocabulary knowledge

· ways of testing vocabulary

· a Task File of photocopiable training tasks
Now, there is one advantage to teaching vocabulary out of context, from word lists or with games of any kind. Students see the words they are supposed to study and believe they must be making progress. At least, they feel that way in class. When they leave the class, they don't remember the words or don't use them correctly and so are misunderstood. By then, of course, they can't blame the teacher, they blame themselves! So teaching vocabulary 'out of context' is safer for the teacher. Teaching vocabulary 'in context' is more effective.
Teaching Writing: Strategies
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
أ/أحمد البسيونى
Admin
avatar

عدد المساهمات : 347
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/02/2010
العمر : 51
الموقع : http://sahragt.ahlamontada.com

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث فى اللغة الإنجليزية عن:Teaching method   الخميس أكتوبر 21, 2010 4:18 am

The most important factor in writing exercises is that students need to be personally involved in order to make the learning experience of lasting value. Encouraging student participation in the exercise, while at the same time refining and expanding writing skills, requires a certain pragmatic approach. The teacher should be clear on what skills he/she is trying to develop. Next, the teacher needs to decide on which means (or type of exercise) can facilitate learning of the target area. Once the target skill areas and means of implmentation are defined, the teacher can then proceed to focus on what topic can be employed to ensure student participation. By pragmatically combing these objectives, the teacher can expect both enthusiasm and effective learning.

Choosing the target area depends on many factors; What level are the students?, What is the average age of the students, Why are the students learning English, Are there any specific future intentions for the writing (i.e school tests or job application letters etc.). Other important questions to ask oneself are: What should the students be able to produce at the end of this exercise? (a well written letter, basic communication of ideas, etc.) What is the focus of the exercise? (structure, tense usage, creative writing). Once these factors are clear in the mind of the teacher, the teacher can begin to focus on how to involve the students in the activity thus promoting a positive, long-term learning experience.

Having decided on the target area, the teacher can focus on the means to achieve this type of learning. As in correction, the teacher must choose the most appropriate manner for the specified writing area. If formal business letter English is required, it is of little use to employ a free expression type of exercise. Likewise, when working on descriptive language writing skills, a formal letter is equally out of place.

With both the target area and means of production, clear in the teachers mind, the teacher can begin to consider how to involve the students by considering what type of activities are interesting to the students; Are they preparing for something specific such as a holiday or test?, Will they need any of the skills pragmatically? What has been effective in the past? A good way to approach this is by class feedback, or brainstorming sessions. By choosing a topic that involves the students the teacher is providing a context within which effective learning on the target area can be understaken.

Finally, the question of which type of correction will facilitate a useful writing exercise is of utmost importance. Here the teacher needs to once again think about the overall target area of the exercise. If there is an immediate task at hand, such as taking a test, perhaps teacher guided correction is the most effective solution. However, if the task is more general (for example developing informal letter writing skills), maybe the best approach would be to have the students work in groups thereby learning from each other. Most importantly, by choosing the correct means of correction the teacher can encourage rather discourage students.

Teaching Listening
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
أ/أحمد البسيونى
Admin
avatar

عدد المساهمات : 347
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/02/2010
العمر : 51
الموقع : http://sahragt.ahlamontada.com

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث فى اللغة الإنجليزية عن:Teaching method   الخميس أكتوبر 21, 2010 4:19 am

Listening skills are vital for your learners. Of the 'four skills,' listening is by far the most frequently used. Listening and speaking are often taught together, but beginners, especially non-literate ones, should be given more listening than speaking practice. It's important to speak as close to natural speed as possible, although with beginners some slowing is usually necessary. Without reducing your speaking speed, you can make your language easier to comprehend by simplifying your vocabulary, using shorter sentences, and increasing the number and length of pauses in your speech.

There are many types of listening activities. Those that don't require learners to produce language in response are easier than those that do. Learners can be asked to physically respond to a command (for example, "please open the door"), select an appropriate picture or object, circle the correct letter or word on a worksheet, draw a route on a map, or fill in a chart as they listen. It's more difficult to repeat back what was heard, translate into the native language, take notes, make an outline, or answer comprehension questions. To add more challenge, learners can continue a story text, solve a problem, perform a similar task with a classmate after listening to a model (for example, order a cake from a bakery), or participate in real-time conversation.

Good listening lessons go beyond the listening task itself with related activities before and after the listening. Here is the basic structure:

  • Before Listening
    Prepare your learners by introducing the topic and finding out what they already know about it. A good way to do this is to have a brainstorming session and some discussion questions related to the topic. Then provide any necessary background information and new vocabulary they will need for the listening activity.
  • During Listening
    Be specific about what students need to listen for. They can listen for selective details or general content, or for an emotional tone such as happy, surprised, or angry. If they are not marking answers or otherwise responding while listening, tell them ahead of time what will be required afterward.
  • After Listening
    Finish with an activity to extend the topic and help students remember new vocabulary. This could be a discussion group, craft project, writing task, game, etc.


The following ideas will help make your listening activities successful.

  • Noise
    Reduce distractions and noise during the listening segment. You may need to close doors or windows or ask children in the room to be quiet for a few minutes.

  • Equipment
    If you are using a cassette player, make sure it produces acceptable sound quality. A counter on the machine will aid tremendously in cueing up tapes. Bring extra batteries or an extension cord with you.

Repetition
Read or play the text a total of 2-3 times. Tell students in advance you will repeat
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
أ/أحمد البسيونى
Admin
avatar

عدد المساهمات : 347
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/02/2010
العمر : 51
الموقع : http://sahragt.ahlamontada.com

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث فى اللغة الإنجليزية عن:Teaching method   الخميس أكتوبر 21, 2010 4:19 am


  • it. This will reduce their anxiety about not catching it all the first time. You can also ask them to listen for different information each time through.
  • Content
    Unless your text is merely a list of items, talk about the content as well as specific language used. The material should be interesting and appropriate for your class level in topic, speed, and vocabulary. You may need to explain reductions (like 'gonna' for 'going to') and fillers (like 'um' or 'uh-huh').

  • Recording Your Own Tape
    Write appropriate text (or use something from your textbook) and have another English speaker read it onto tape. Copy the recording three times so you don't need to rewind. The reader should not simply read three times, because students want to hear exact repetition of the pronunciation, intonation, and pace, not just the words.

  • Video
    You can play a video clip with the sound off and ask students to make predictions about what dialog is taking place. Then play it again with sound and discuss why they were right or wrong in their predictions. You can also play the sound without the video first, and show the video after students have guessed what is going on.

  • Homework
    Give students a listening task to do between classes. Encourage them to listen to public announcements in airports, bus stations, supermarkets, etc. and try to write down what they heard. Tell them the telephone number of a cinema and ask them to write down the playing times of a specific movie. Give them a tape recording of yourself with questions, dictation, or a worksheet to complete.


HOW TO TEACH – STORIES

  • Be animated. Read each book to its fullest potential. Your voice and facial expressions give a book life. Make it an exciting one.
  • Let them fill in the blanks. If a book repeats phrases or words, has pictures that help you discover some of the words, or if the child has read a book several times and knows it well, pause when you come to an obvious word and let them say it. This is a big part of teaching children to read. When they read their favorite books over and over again until they can 'read' it without your help, they begin to believe that they have the ability to read. And they do in a sense. What better way to encourage reading than to help them learn to 'read' the books they love? Actual reading will come in time, but this is a great beginning for any child!
  • Talk about the story. Stop at "cliff-hanger" pages and ask them what they think will come next. Talk about how the characters feel or why they are acting a certain way. Use books to discuss your own opinions on topics like anger, selfishness, greed, laziness, being polite, kindness, etc. For example, those first two pigs are kind of lazy aren't they? What happened to them because of it? Or, Cinderella's stepmother wasn't very kind, was she? And so on.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
أ/أحمد البسيونى
Admin
avatar

عدد المساهمات : 347
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/02/2010
العمر : 51
الموقع : http://sahragt.ahlamontada.com

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث فى اللغة الإنجليزية عن:Teaching method   الخميس أكتوبر 21, 2010 4:19 am


  • Share your favorites. Find your favorite authors and illustrators and buy or check out their books frequently. Make sure to mention how you love Mark Buehner's artwork or the way Dr. Seuss uses words. Talk to them about what they like or don't like in different books.


How to teach a story?

Story telling is an age-old method of instruction. Jesus, the Master teacher, used it and so have millions of teachers before and after Him. It is an effective and delightful way to personalize a principle or illustrate a correct thought pattern in dealing with a problem.

A fiction writer does more with his characters than God does with His creation. Does this seem shocking? Think of this: a fiction writer creates the people, gives them their personality, then gives them their environment, their problems, their words, yes, their very thoughts, then rewards or punishes them for what they chose. While God admonishes His creation to repent and turn to Him, the fiction writer pre-determines every aspect of the lives of his characters, including their destiny. They have no choice. His only obligation is to make them act in a way befitting of the character he gave them.

In light of this, it is vitally important to know the world-view of an author. If the author, for example, believes in situation ethics rather than in absolute truth, the superiority of his view will be evident in his stories. Mark Twain was a skeptic who was bitter toward God for some severe trials in his life, including the death of his wife. He had no time for preachers or the Bible. In light of this, think about the lessons taught in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. The one professing Christian in the story, Aunt Polly, loves Tom too much to obey the Bible and discipline him. The church service is so boring that only some shenanigans from Tom make it tolerable. In the end, Tom, who is deceptive, dishonest, rebellious, and disobedient, is the hero and all come to him for wisdom. Are the lessons in this ‘classic’ what you want your children to learn?

Like Mark Twain’s, the stories on this website are fiction. But the lessons learned through right and wrong decisions in the face of trials are based on Bible truth. If you find any otherwise, let me know and they will be changed immediately. The goal of each story is to teach eternal truth through the media of stories so that readers will be wiser when they face similar situations.

May the Lord give us wisdom in using every good means possible in teaching our children those qualities that will never change, no matter which way the cultural breeze is blowing.

Classroom managementThis guide to classroom management, which incorporates the essential features of classroom organization, management, and discipline, provides information to help
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
أ/أحمد البسيونى
Admin
avatar

عدد المساهمات : 347
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/02/2010
العمر : 51
الموقع : http://sahragt.ahlamontada.com

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث فى اللغة الإنجليزية عن:Teaching method   الخميس أكتوبر 21, 2010 4:20 am

secondary school teachers establish effective classroom management systems. The text emphasizes prevention through planning and addresses decisions teachers must make in the typical classroom, e.g., arranging physical space, choosing rules and procedures, planning and conducting instruction, maintaining appropriate behavior, using good communication skills, dealing with problem behavior, and managing special groups. In addition, the volume provides checklists for organizing concepts and principles into usable, concise formats, makes use of case studies, includes activities dealing with and correcting classroom problems, and links the concepts of instructional management with behavior/classroom management. Nine chapters are organized as follows: (1) "Organizing Your Classroom and Materials"; (2) "Choosing Rules and Procedures"; (3) "Managing Student Work"; (4) "Getting Off to a Good Start"; (5) "Planning and Conducting Instruction"; (6) "Maintaining Appropriate Student Behavior"; (7) "Communication Skills for Teaching"; (Cool "Managing Problem Behaviors"; and (9) "Managing Special Groups." Answer keys for chapter activities are appended.
Teacher Efficacy in Classroom Management and Discipline




scale for measuring teacher efficacy in classroom managementand discipline is presented, along with results from a factoranalysis of intercorrelations of items from the scale and itemsfrom two other teacher efficacy scales. Data sources included119 preservice teacher education students and 42 student teachers.Results are presented indicating that classroom management/disciplineefficacy is distinct from other types of teacher efficacy, andthat the subscales have acceptable internal consistency andtest-retest reliability. The data also indicate that efficacybeliefs predict preferences for certain strategies to deal withproblems presented in vignettes; however, no relationships werefound between self efficacy scores of student teachers and ratingsof teaching performance made by university supervisors.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
بحث فى اللغة الإنجليزية عن:Teaching method
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
مدرسة صهرجت الصغرى الثانوية :: ابداعات هيئة التدريس-
انتقل الى: