مدرسة صهرجت الصغرى الثانوية

مدرسة صهرجت الصغرى الثانوية

مدرسة صهرجت الصغرى الثانوية
 
الرئيسيةالتسجيل

شاطر | 
 

 About Hashish

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
Mohamed Mahfouz



عدد المساهمات : 3
تاريخ التسجيل : 11/10/2010

مُساهمةموضوع: About Hashish   الإثنين أكتوبر 11, 2010 8:55 pm

This article is about the cannabis preparation. For other uses, see hash.

"Blonde" hashish
HashishHashish (pronounced /hæˈʃiːʃ/ or /ˈhæʃiːʃ/) (from Arabic: حشيش ḥashīsh, lit. "grass", from hashisha "to become dry"; also hash) is a preparation of cannabis composed of the compressed stalked resin glands called trichomes, collected from the cannabis plant. It contains the same active ingredients but in higher concentrations than other parts of the plant such as the buds or the leaves. Hashish is often a paste-like substance with varying hardness and pliability. Its color is most commonly light to dark brown, but can vary toward green, yellow, black, or red.

The psychoactive effects of hashish are the same as those of other cannabis preparations. It is sometimes believed that the effects are different, but those perceptions usually stem from the increased potency of hashish, as well as variations between regionally different Cannabis specimens that are typically processed into hashish.[citation needed]

Hashish is heated in a screened miniature smoking pipe (one-hitter, kiseru, midwakh, sebsi etc.), hookah, bong bubbler, vaporizer, hot knife, smoked in joints mixed with cannabis buds, tobacco or other aromatic herbs,[1] or cooked in foods



History

A Hash store in Kathmandu.It is believed that hash first originated from West Asia, as this region was among the first to be populated by the cannabis plant. More reliably, it may have originated in Northern India which also has a very long social tradition in the production of Hashish which is locally known as Charas. It is hypothesized that this Charas is the same plant resin burned in the ceremonial "booz rooz" of ancient Persia.[2] Cannabis sativa subsp. indica grows wild almost everywhere in the Indian sub-continent and special strains have been particularly cultivated for production of 'ganja' and 'hashish' particularly in West Bengal, Rajasthan and the Himalayas.[citation needed] The earliest hashish was created without the use of sieves. The ancients would gently rub their palms and fingers on cannabis buds for hours while resin accumulated on their hands and then scrape that resin off. This sort of primitive harvesting is undertaken even today in the Cannabis growing farms of Manali, Naggar and Upper Himachal Pradesh.

The principal utility of hashish, compared to other forms of marijuana, has been greater ease of transport or concealment. Consumption of hashish saw an increase in the 20th century, in Europe and America, associated with the hippie subculture. Hashish use declined significantly in the United States starting in the 1980s for several reasons, including U.S. political pressures against Afghanistan and the ensuing Soviet invasion, the Reagan-escalated War on Drugs, a huge jump in price, and the success of marijuana cultivators in North America with new methods for increasing THC production, such as indoor growing.




Manufacturing processes

Stalked trichomes of the Cannabis plant.Hashish is made from cannabinoid-rich glandular hairs known as trichomes, as well as varying amounts of cannabis flower and leaf fragments. The flowers of a mature female plant contain the most trichomes[citation needed], though trichomes are found on other parts of the plant. Certain strains of cannabis are cultivated specifically for their ability to produce large amounts of trichomes. The resin reservoirs of the trichomes, sometimes erroneously called pollen (vendors often use the euphemism "pollen catchers" to describe screened kief-grinders), are separated from the plant through various methods. The resulting powder, often referred to as "kief", is compressed, with the aid of heat, into blocks of hashish which have historically been easily stored and transported[citation needed], or alternatively the uncompressed dry kief can be smoked as-is in a screened one-hitter, avoiding the additional costs of making hashish.

Mechanical separation methods use physical action to remove the trichomes from the plant, sieving through a fine (#30) screen by hand or in motorized tumblers.[citation needed] The kief made in this way is sometimes called 'dry sift'. 'Finger hash' is produced by rolling the ripe trichome-covered flowers of the plant between the fingers, rupturing the trichomes, and collecting the freed resin that sticks to the fingers.

Ice water separation is a more modern mechanical separation method which submerges the plant's leaves in ice and water and agitates the mixture, sometimes in a washing machine.[citation needed] The low temperature solidifies the resinous trichomes. They become brittle, and the mechanical agitation breaks them off the leaves. The waste plant matter, detached trichomes, and water are separated by filtering through a series of increasingly fine screens or bags (with pore sizes ranging from 220 to 25 microns).[3] The trichomes of various sizes are then dried and pressed into solid blocks of hash. Kits are commercially available which provide a series of filter bags meant to fit inside standard bucket sizes. Hash made in this way is sometimes called 'ice hash', or 'bubble hash'. This method produces valuable product from leaf matter that would otherwise be discarded (after the plant's "buds" are trimmed for sale). The advent of this process has made hashish much more readily available in North America.[citation needed]

Chemical separation methods generally use a solvent such as ethanol or hexane to dissolve the lipophilic desirable resin. The remaining plant material is then filtered out of the solution and sent to the compost.[4] The solvent is then evaporated, leaving behind the desirable resins, called honey oil, "hash oil", or just "oil". Honey oil still contains waxes and essential oils and can be further purified by vacuum distillation to yield "red oil". The product of chemical separations is more commonly referred to as "honey oil".



Quality

HashishThe main factors affecting quality are potency and purity.

Tiny pieces of leaf matter or even purposefully added adulterants introduced when the hash is being produced will reduce the purity of the material. The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of hashish comes in wide ranges from 15–70%, and that of hash oil from 30–90%.[5]

Fresh hashish considered to be good quality is soft and pliable and becomes progressively harder and less potent as its THC content oxidizes to cannabinol and as essential oils evaporate.

Hash is generally said to be black, brown or blonde. There is also hashish of greenish or reddish hue. A green tinge may indicate that the hashish contains a large amount of leaf material. Hashish color usually reflects the methods of harvesting, manufacturing, and storage.

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
About Hashish
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
مدرسة صهرجت الصغرى الثانوية :: مجموعة نشاط اللغة الانجليزية-
انتقل الى: